Bibliography

 

  • Bendavid R, Lou W, Grischkan D, Koch A, Petersen K, et al. A mechanism of mesh-related post-herniorrhaphy neuralgia. Hernia. 2015 Nov 23;PubMed PMID: 26597872.
  • Zheng G, Hong S, Hayes JM, Wiley JW. Chronic stress and peripheral pain: Evidence for distinct, region-specific changes in visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways. Exp Neurol. 2015 Nov;273:301-11. PubMed PMID: 26408049; NIHMSID: NIHMS726964; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4644500.
  • Furukawa S. [Basic Research on Neurotrophic Factors and Its Application to Medical Uses]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2015;135(11):1213-26. PubMed PMID: 26521870.
  • Schmelz M. Itch and pain differences and commonalities. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2015;227:285-301. PubMed PMID: 25846624.
  • McLachlan EM, Hu P. Inflammation in dorsal root ganglia after peripheral nerve injury: effects of the sympathetic innervation. Auton Neurosci. 2014 May;182:108-17. PubMed PMID: 24418114.
  • Jänig W. Sympathetic nervous system and inflammation: a conceptual view. Auton Neurosci. 2014 May;182:4-14. PubMed PMID: 24525016.
  • Werner MU, Kehlet H. [Management of patients with persistent pain following groin hernia repair]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2014 Jan 6;176(2A):V06130349. PubMed PMID: 25348667.
  • Klosterhalfen B, Klinge U. Retrieval study at 623 human mesh explants made of polypropylene–impact of mesh class and indication for mesh removal on tissue reaction. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2013 Nov;101(8):1393-9. PubMed PMID: 24591221.
  • Chen DC, Hiatt JR, Amid PK. Operative management of refractory neuropathic inguinodynia by a laparoscopic retroperitoneal approach. JAMA Surg. 2013 Oct;148(10):962-7. PubMed PMID: 23903521.
  • Wiegering A, Schlegel N, Isbert C, Jurowich C, Doht S, et al. Lessons and challenges during a 5-year follow-up of 21 Composix Kugel implantations. Hernia. 2013 Aug;17(4):435-43. PubMed PMID: 23657860.
  • Vachon P, Millecamps M, Low L, Thompsosn SJ, Pailleux F, et al. Alleviation of chronic neuropathic pain by environmental enrichment in mice well after the establishment of chronic pain. Behav Brain Funct. 2013 Jun 7;9:22. PubMed PMID: 24025218; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3679946.
  • Bischoff JM, Enghuus C, Werner MU, Kehlet H. Long-term follow-up after mesh removal and selective neurectomy for persistent inguinal postherniorrhaphy pain. Hernia. 2013 Jun;17(3):339-45. PubMed PMID: 23494661.
  • Campanelli G, Bertocchi V, Cavalli M, Bombini G, Biondi A, et al. Surgical treatment of chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair. Hernia. 2013 Jun;17(3):347-53. PubMed PMID: 23519769.
  • Klosterhalfen B, Klinge U. Retrieval study at 623 human mesh explants made of polypropylene – impact of mesh class and indication for mesh removal on tissue reaction. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2013 May 19;PubMed PMID: 23686765.
  • Liang MK, Clapp M, Li LT, Berger RL, Hicks SC, et al. Patient Satisfaction, chronic pain, and functional status following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. World J Surg. 2013 Mar;37(3):530-7. PubMed PMID: 23212794.
  • McKelvey L, Shorten GD, O’Keeffe GW. Nerve growth factor-mediated regulation of pain signalling and proposed new intervention strategies in clinical pain management. J Neurochem. 2013 Feb;124(3):276-89. PubMed PMID: 23157347.
  • Zhong C, Wu B, Yang Z, Deng X, Kang J, et al. A meta-analysis comparing lightweight meshes with heavyweight meshes in Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair. Surg Innov. 2013 Feb;20(1):24-31. PubMed PMID: 23075529.
  • Ceko M, Bushnell MC, Fitzcharles MA, Schweinhardt P. Fibromyalgia interacts with age to change the brain. Neuroimage Clin. 2013;3:249-60. PubMed PMID: 24273710; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3814958.
  • Quyn AJ, Weatherhead KM, Daniel T. Chronic pain after open inguinal hernia surgery: suture fixation versus self-adhesive mesh repair. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2012 Dec;397(8):1215-8. PubMed PMID: 22549174.
  • Li J, Ji Z, Cheng T. Lightweight versus heavyweight in inguinal hernia repair: a meta-analysis. Hernia. 2012 Oct;16(5):529-39. PubMed PMID: 22689249.
  • Klein F, Ospina C, Rudolph B, Wüstefeld J, Denecke T, et al. Formation of a chronic pain syndrome due to mesh shrinkage after laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM). Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2012 Oct;22(5):e288-90. PubMed PMID: 23047409.
  • Willaert W, De Bacquer D, Rogiers X, Troisi R, Berrevoet F. Open Preperitoneal Techniques versus Lichtenstein Repair for elective Inguinal Hernias. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jul 11;7:CD008034. PubMed PMID: 22786511.
  • Schouten N, van Dalen T, Smakman N, Elias SG, van de Water C, et al. Male infertility after endoscopic Totally Extraperitoneal (Tep) hernia repair (Main): rationale and design of a prospective observational cohort study. BMC Surg. 2012 May 21;12:7. PubMed PMID: 22612995; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3414734.
  • Werner MU, Bischoff JM, Rathmell JP, Kehlet H. Pulsed radiofrequency in the treatment of persistent pain after inguinal herniotomy: a systematic review. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012 May-Jun;37(3):340-3. PubMed PMID: 22476237.
  • Szopinski J, Dabrowiecki S, Pierscinski S, Jackowski M, Jaworski M, et al. Desarda versus Lichtenstein technique for primary inguinal hernia treatment: 3-year results of a randomized clinical trial. World J Surg. 2012 May;36(5):984-92. PubMed PMID: 22392354; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3321139.
  • Danto LA. Inguinodynia and ilioinguinal neurectomy. Am J Surg. 2012 Apr;203(4):550. PubMed PMID: 18789422.
  • Raychaudhuri SP, Raychaudhuri SK, Atkuri KR, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA. Nerve growth factor: A key local regulator in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Nov;63(11):3243-52. PubMed PMID: 21792838.
  • Amid PK, Chen DC. Surgical treatment of chronic groin and testicular pain after laparoscopic and open preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. J Am Coll Surg. 2011 Oct;213(4):531-6. PubMed PMID: 21784668.
  • Alino J. Misleading conclusion from the unifying theory of the stellate ganglion block for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Med Hypotheses. 2011 Sep;77(3):465. PubMed PMID: 21737206.
  • Koopmann MC, Yamane BH, Starling JR. Long-term follow-up after meshectomy with acellular human dermis repair for postherniorrhaphy inguinodynia. Arch Surg. 2011 Apr;146(4):427-31. PubMed PMID: 21502450.
  • Chan G, Chan CK. The characteristics of inguinal hernia recurrence in the modern era and the long-term outcomes after re-operation. Hernia. 2011 Apr;15(2):193-9. PubMed PMID: 21267616.
  • Lee M, Silverman SM, Hansen H, Patel VB, Manchikanti L. A comprehensive review of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Pain Physician. 2011 Mar-Apr;14(2):145-61. PubMed PMID: 21412369.
  • Masukawa K, Wilson SE. Is postoperative chronic pain syndrome higher with mesh repair of inguinal hernia?. Am Surg. 2010 Oct;76(10):1115-8. PubMed PMID: 21105623.
  • Mulvaney SW, McLean B, de Leeuw J. The use of stellate ganglion block in the treatment of panic/anxiety symptoms with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder; preliminary results of long-term follow-up: a case series. Pain Pract. 2010 Jul-Aug;10(4):359-65. PubMed PMID: 20412504.
  • Bradesi S. Role of spinal cord glia in the central processing of peripheral pain perception. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010 May;22(5):499-511. PubMed PMID: 20236247; NIHMSID: NIHMS204275; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2893561.
  • Hübner M, Demartines N, Vuilleumier H. The effect of mesh removal and selective neurectomy on persistent postherniotomy pain. Ann Surg. 2010 Jan;251(1):180; author reply 180-1. PubMed PMID: 19940759.
  • Lipov EG, Joshi JR, Sanders S, Slavin KV. A unifying theory linking the prolonged efficacy of the stellate ganglion block for the treatment of chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS), hot flashes, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Med Hypotheses. 2009 Jun;72(6):657-61. PubMed PMID: 19237252.
  • Smietański M, Bigda J, Zaborowski K, Worek M, Sledziński Z. Three-year follow-up of modified Lichtenstein inguinal hernioplasty using lightweight poliglecaprone/polypropylene mesh. Hernia. 2009 Jun;13(3):239-42. PubMed PMID: 19153646.
  • Vuilleumier H, Hübner M, Demartines N. Neuropathy after herniorrhaphy: indication for surgical treatment and outcome. World J Surg. 2009 Apr;33(4):841-5. PubMed PMID: 19156462.
  • Thapa PB, Maharjan DK, Pudasaini S, Sharma SK. Inguinal vasal obstruction following polypropylene mesh repair. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2009 Apr-Jun;48(174):168-9. PubMed PMID: 20387363.
  • Aasvang EK, Kehlet H. The effect of mesh removal and selective neurectomy on persistent postherniotomy pain. Ann Surg. 2009 Feb;249(2):327-34. PubMed PMID: 19212190.
  • Agarwal BB, Agarwal KA, Mahajan KC. Prospective double-blind randomized controlled study comparing heavy- and lightweight polypropylene mesh in totally extraperitoneal repair of inguinal hernia: early results. Surg Endosc. 2009 Feb;23(2):242-7. PubMed PMID: 18923870.
  • Eklund AS, Montgomery AK, Rasmussen IC, Sandbue RP, Bergkvist LA, et al. Low recurrence rate after laparoscopic (TEP) and open (Lichtenstein) inguinal hernia repair: a randomized, multicenter trial with 5-year follow-up. Ann Surg. 2009 Jan;249(1):33-8. PubMed PMID: 19106673.
  • Delikoukos S, Fafoulakis F, Christodoulidis G, Theodoropoulos T, Hatzitheofilou C. Re-operation due to severe late-onset persisting groin pain following anterior inguinal hernia repair with mesh. Hernia. 2008 Dec;12(6):593-5. PubMed PMID: 18542838.
  • Lauscher JC, Yafaei K, Buhr HJ, Ritz JP. Total extraperitoneal hernioplasty: does the long-term clinical course depend on the type of mesh?. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2008 Dec;18(6):803-8. PubMed PMID: 19105667.
  • Hendry PO, Paterson-Brown S, de Beaux A. Work related aspects of inguinal hernia: a literature review. Surgeon. 2008 Dec;6(6):361-5. PubMed PMID: 19110825.
  • Aasvang EK, Kehlet H. Postherniotomy dysejaculation: successful treatment with mesh removal and nerve transection. Hernia. 2008 Dec;12(6):645-7. PubMed PMID: 18437287.
  • śmietański M. Randomized clinical trial comparing a polypropylene with a poliglecaprone and polypropylene composite mesh for inguinal hernioplasty. Br J Surg. 2008 Dec;95(12):1462-8. PubMed PMID: 18991255.
  • Yamaguchi K, Ishikawa T, Nakano Y, Kondo Y, Shiotani M, et al. Rapidly progressing, late-onset obstructive azoospermia linked to herniorrhaphy with mesh. Fertil Steril. 2008 Nov;90(5):2018.e5-7. PubMed PMID: 18675969.
  • de Lange DH, Wijsmuller AR, Aufenacker TJ, Rauwerda JA, Simons MP. [Neuralgic pain, a significant complication after a Lichtenstein procedure for inguinal hernia repair]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008 Oct 11;152(41):2205-9. PubMed PMID: 19009804.
  • Ren K, Dubner R. Neuron-glia crosstalk gets serious: role in pain hypersensitivity. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2008 Oct;21(5):570-9. PubMed PMID: 18784481; NIHMSID: NIHMS94528; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2735048.
  • Pfeffer F, Riediger H, Küfner Lein R, Hopt UT. [Repair of bilateral inguinal hernias–sequential or simultaneous?]. Zentralbl Chir. 2008 Sep;133(5):446-51; discussion 452. PubMed PMID: 18924041.
  • Pergolizzi J, Böger RH, Budd K, Dahan A, Erdine S, et al. Opioids and the management of chronic severe pain in the elderly: consensus statement of an International Expert Panel with focus on the six clinically most often used World Health Organization Step III opioids (buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone). Pain Pract. 2008 Jul-Aug;8(4):287-313. PubMed PMID: 18503626.
  • Malekpour F, Mirhashemi SH, Hajinasrolah E, Salehi N, Khoshkar A, et al. Ilioinguinal nerve excision in open mesh repair of inguinal hernia–results of a randomized clinical trial: simple solution for a difficult problem?. Am J Surg. 2008 Jun;195(6):735-40. PubMed PMID: 18440489.
  • Fränneby U, Gunnarsson U, Andersson M, Heuman R, Nordin P, et al. Validation of an Inguinal Pain Questionnaire for assessment of chronic pain after groin hernia repair. Br J Surg. 2008 Apr;95(4):488-93. PubMed PMID: 18161900.
  • Kalliomäki ML, Meyerson J, Gunnarsson U, Gordh T, Sandblom G. Long-term pain after inguinal hernia repair in a population-based cohort; risk factors and interference with daily activities. Eur J Pain. 2008 Feb;12(2):214-25. PubMed PMID: 17606392.
  • Massaron S, Bona S, Fumagalli U, Valente P, Rosati R. Long-term sequelae after 1,311 primary inguinal hernia repairs. Hernia. 2008 Feb;12(1):57-63. PubMed PMID: 17851727.
  • Willis CL, Brooks TA, Davis TP. Chronic inflammatory pain and the neurovascular unit: a central role for glia in maintaining BBB integrity?. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14(16):1625-43. PubMed PMID: 18673205.
  • Massaron S, Bona S, Fumagalli U, Battafarano F, Elmore U, et al. Analysis of post-surgical pain after inguinal hernia repair: a prospective study of 1,440 operations. Hernia. 2007 Dec;11(6):517-25. PubMed PMID: 17646895.
  • van Veen RN, Wijsmuller AR, Vrijland WW, Hop WC, Lange JF, et al. Randomized clinical trial of mesh versus non-mesh primary inguinal hernia repair: long-term chronic pain at 10 years. Surgery. 2007 Nov;142(5):695-8. PubMed PMID: 17981189.
  • López-Cano M, Vilallonga R, Sánchez JL, Hermosilla E, Armengol M. Short postal questionnaire and selective clinical examination combined with repeat mailing and telephone reminders as a method of follow-up in hernia surgery. Hernia. 2007 Oct;11(5):397-402. PubMed PMID: 17520168.
  • Delikoukos S, Lavant L, Hlias G, Palogos K, Gikas D. The role of hernia sac ligation in postoperative pain in patients with elective tension-free indirect inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomized study. Hernia. 2007 Oct;11(5):425-8. PubMed PMID: 17594052.
  • Nienhuijs S, Staal E, Strobbe L, Rosman C, Groenewoud H, et al. Chronic pain after mesh repair of inguinal hernia: a systematic review. Am J Surg. 2007 Sep;194(3):394-400. PubMed PMID: 17693290.
  • Sarchielli P, Mancini ML, Floridi A, Coppola F, Rossi C, et al. Increased levels of neurotrophins are not specific for chronic migraine: evidence from primary fibromyalgia syndrome. J Pain. 2007 Sep;8(9):737-45. PubMed PMID: 17611164.
  • Aroori S, Spence RA. Chronic pain after hernia surgery–an informed consent issue. Ulster Med J. 2007 Sep;76(3):136-40. PubMed PMID: 17853638; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2075594.
  • Ansaloni L, Catena F, Gagliardi S, Gazzotti F, D’Alessandro L, et al. Hernia repair with porcine small-intestinal submucosa. Hernia. 2007 Aug;11(4):321-6. PubMed PMID: 17443270.
  • Paajanen H. A single-surgeon randomized trial comparing three composite meshes on chronic pain after Lichtenstein hernia repair in local anesthesia. Hernia. 2007 Aug;11(4):335-9. PubMed PMID: 17492341.
  • Aasvang EK, Kehlet H. Chronic pain after childhood groin hernia repair. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Aug;42(8):1403-8. PubMed PMID: 17706504.
  • Dennis R, O’Riordan D. Risk factors for chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2007 Apr;89(3):218-20. PubMed PMID: 17394701; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1964708.
  • Loos MJ, Roumen RM, Scheltinga MR. Chronic sequelae of common elective groin hernia repair. Hernia. 2007 Apr;11(2):169-73. PubMed PMID: 17279317.
  • Delikoukos S, Tzovaras G, Liakou P, Mantzos F, Hatzitheofilou C. Late-onset deep mesh infection after inguinal hernia repair. Hernia. 2007 Feb;11(1):15-7. PubMed PMID: 16941077.
  • Weyhe D, Belyaev O, Müller C, Meurer K, Bauer KH, et al. Improving outcomes in hernia repair by the use of light meshes–a comparison of different implant constructions based on a critical appraisal of the literature. World J Surg. 2007 Jan;31(1):234-44. PubMed PMID: 17180568.
  • Bringman S, Wollert S, Osterberg J, Smedberg S, Granlund H, et al. Three-year results of a randomized clinical trial of lightweight or standard polypropylene mesh in Lichtenstein repair of primary inguinal hernia. Br J Surg. 2006 Sep;93(9):1056-9. PubMed PMID: 16862613.
  • Mui WL, Ng CS, Fung TM, Cheung FK, Wong CM, et al. Prophylactic ilioinguinal neurectomy in open inguinal hernia repair: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2006 Jul;244(1):27-33. PubMed PMID: 16794386; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1570605.
  • Fawole AS, Chaparala RP, Ambrose NS. Fate of the inguinal hernia following removal of infected prosthetic mesh. Hernia. 2006 Mar;10(1):58-61. PubMed PMID: 16284700.
  • O’Dwyer PJ, Alani A, McConnachie A. Groin hernia repair: postherniorrhaphy pain. World J Surg. 2005 Aug;29(8):1062-5. PubMed PMID: 15981040.
  • Dittrick GW, Ridl K, Kuhn JA, McCarty TM. Routine ilioinguinal nerve excision in inguinal hernia repairs. Am J Surg. 2004 Dec;188(6):736-40. PubMed PMID: 15619492.
  • Miedema BW, Ibrahim SM, Davis BD, Koivunen DG. A prospective trial of primary inguinal hernia repair by surgical trainees. Hernia. 2004 Feb;8(1):28-32. PubMed PMID: 12898290.
  • Post S, Weiss B, Willer M, Neufang T, Lorenz D. Randomized clinical trial of lightweight composite mesh for Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair. Br J Surg. 2004 Jan;91(1):44-8. PubMed PMID: 14716792.
  • Sarchielli P, Gallai V. Nerve growth factor and chronic daily headache: a potential implication for therapy. Expert Rev Neurother. 2004 Jan;4(1):115-27. PubMed PMID: 15853622.
  • Rosch R, Junge K, Schachtrupp A, Klinge U, Klosterhalfen B, et al. Mesh implants in hernia repair Inflammatory cell response in a rat model. Eur Surg Res. 2003 May-Jun;35(3):161-6. PubMed PMID: 12740536.
  • Kumar S, Wilson RG, Nixon SJ, Macintyre IM. Chronic pain after laparoscopic and open mesh repair of groin hernia. Br J Surg. 2002 Nov;89(11):1476-9. PubMed PMID: 12390395.
  • Ueda M, Hirose M, Takei N, Ibuki T, Naruse Y, et al. Nerve growth factor induces systemic hyperalgesia after thoracic burn injury in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2002 Aug 9;328(2):97-100. PubMed PMID: 12133564.
  • Scott NW, McCormack K, Graham P, Go PM, Ross SJ, et al. Open mesh versus non-mesh for repair of femoral and inguinal hernia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;PubMed PMID: 12519568.
  • Jänig W, Häbler HJ. Specificity in the organization of the autonomic nervous system: a basis for precise neural regulation of homeostatic and protective body functions. Prog Brain Res. 2000;122:351-67. PubMed PMID: 10737070.
  • Giovengo SL, Russell IJ, Larson AA. Increased concentrations of nerve growth factor in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol. 1999 Jul;26(7):1564-9. PubMed PMID: 10405946.
  • Heise CP, Starling JR. Mesh inguinodynia: a new clinical syndrome after inguinal herniorrhaphy?. J Am Coll Surg. 1998 Nov;187(5):514-8. PubMed PMID: 9809568.
  • Fischer HP, Eich W, Russell IJ. A possible role for saliva as a diagnostic fluid in patients with chronic pain. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1998 Jun;27(6):348-59. PubMed PMID: 9662753.
  • Baron R, Jänig W. [Pain syndromes with causal participation of the sympathetic nervous system]. Anaesthesist. 1998 Jan;47(1):4-23. PubMed PMID: 9530442.
  • Beets GL, Oosterhuis KJ, Go PM, Baeten CG, Kootstra G. Longterm followup (12-15 years) of a randomized controlled trial comparing Bassini-Stetten, Shouldice, and high ligation with narrowing of the internal ring for primary inguinal hernia repair. J Am Coll Surg. 1997 Oct;185(4):352-7. PubMed PMID: 9328383.
  • Hay JM, Boudet MJ, Fingerhut A, Poucher J, Hennet H, et al. Shouldice inguinal hernia repair in the male adult: the gold standard? A multicenter controlled trial in 1578 patients. Ann Surg. 1995 Dec;222(6):719-27. PubMed PMID: 8526578; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1235020.
  • Steinau G, Treutner KH, Feeken G, Schumpelick V. Recurrent inguinal hernias in infants and children. World J Surg. 1995 Mar-Apr;19(2):303-6. PubMed PMID: 7754639.
  • Kux M, Fuchsjäger N, Schemper M. Shouldice is superior to Bassini inguinal herniorrhaphy. Am J Surg. 1994 Jul;168(1):15-8. PubMed PMID: 8024092.
  • Sommer C, Galbraith JA, Heckman HM, Myers RR. Pathology of experimental compression neuropathy producing hyperesthesia. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1993 May;52(3):223-33. PubMed PMID: 8492140.
  • Grabenhorst R. [Evaluation of the Bassini reconstruction principle for inguinal hernia]. Zentralbl Chir. 1993;118(12):767-73. PubMed PMID: 8147151.
  • Rutledge RH. Cooper’s ligament repair: a 25-year experience with a single technique for all groin hernias in adults. Surgery. 1988 Jan;103(1):1-10. PubMed PMID: 3336859.
  • Jänig W. Neuronal mechanisms of pain with special emphasis on visceral and deep somatic pain. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien). 1987;38:16-32. PubMed PMID: 3307313.
  • Jänig W. Systemic and specific autonomic reactions in pain: efferent, afferent and endocrine components. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1985 Dec;2(4):319-46. PubMed PMID: 3910427.